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scientific edition of Bauman MSTU

SCIENCE & EDUCATION

Bauman Moscow State Technical University.   El № FS 77 - 48211.   ISSN 1994-0408

# 04, April 2014

Machine Building and Engineering Science

About the Problems and Perspectives of Making Precision Compressor Blades
# 04, April 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0414.0705085
V.E. Galiev, D.Z. Fatkullina, D.R. Tamindarov
The article considers the problems of manufacturing blades with high precision profile geometry. It analyzes existing processes of making precision blades and illustrates the blade basing systems that are used in the manufacturing process. Their advantages and disadvantages are marked.  The article offers the option to install the blade preform, the main advantage of which is simplicity of the base forms. The special attention is paid to the difficulties with control of the geometric parameters of blades airfoil. A represented technology under development excludes the use of mechanical methods for processing the blades airfoil. Based on this analysis, the author argues that the application of the proposed process to manufacture precision compressor blades ensures producing the items that meet the requirements of the drawing.
Explosive Device of Conduit Using Ti Ni Alloy
# 04, April 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0414.0708287
A.Yu. Kolobov, V.F. Alyoshin
By the present time a great number of compounds and alloys with a shape memory effect has been known. The alloys based on titanium nickelide are the most widely spread. In space engineering there is a task of breaking a fuel conduit when separating the spacecraft from the rocket in space technology.The paper examines a procedure for design calculation of separating device of conduit using the Ti-Ni alloy (nitinol). This device can be used instead of the pyro-knives.The device contains two semi-rings from Ti-Ni alloy. In the place of break on the conduit an annular radius groove is made. At a temperature of martensite passage the semi-rings undergo deformation and in the strained state are set in the device. With heating to the temperature of the austenitic passage of bushing macro-deformation the energy stored by the nitinol bushing is great enough to break the conduit on the neck. The procedures for design calculation and response time of device are given.
The Influence of Cathode Excavation of Cathodic Arc Evaporator on Thickness Uniformity and Erosion Products Angle Distribution
# 04, April 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0414.0707391
D.V. Duhopel'nikov, D.V. Kirillov, E.V. Vorob'ev, S.G. Ivakhnenko
The research of the influence of the excavation process of butt-end vacuum arc evaporator on the angle distribution of the evaporated material flux was carried out. Coating profile of flat extended substrate placed perpendicular the cathode surface was measured at various working duration and different extends of excavation of vacuum arc evaporator cathode. According to the obtained profiles the angle distribution of the material flux was reconstructed. The normalized dimensionless angle distribution of the material flux was formed according to various extends of cathode excavation and the comparison with distribution of flat point source according to Lambert-Knudsen law was made.

Constructional Material Processing in Machine Building

Developing a Mathematical Model of the Tooth Profile Angles of Thread Milling Cutter With Helical Flutes
# 04, April 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0414.0707227
O.V. Malkov, L.D. Mal'kova
Based on the developed geometrical model an experiment is conducted to calculate the values of tooth profile angles of thread milling cutter with helical flutes at variation of five factors in the established factorial space. When planning the experiment the full central composite draft has been elaborated in the coded form for five factors at three levels taking into account the orthogonality and the impossibility to conduct repeatedly experiments in the chosen points. Mathematical models are developed to calculate the tooth profile angles of thread milling cutter with helical flutes allowing to obtain the values of angles depending on a pitch of thread, a cutter diameter, a rake angle, an angle of lead of helical flutes, and a back angle. Calculation of the profile angles made according to polynoms for all combinations of factors has shown that an error of calculated values in comparison with the values obtained using a geometrical model do not exceed a tolerance for a half of tooth profile angle according to GOST 1336-77.

Transportation, Mining and Construction Machine Building

Simulation Modeling of Wheeled Vehicle Dynamics on the Stand "Roller"
# 04, April 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0414.0707918
G.O. Kotiev, V.A. Gorelov, A.Y. Zakharov
The article substantiates an urgency to develop the theoretically grounded techniques for the bench tests of automotive engineering. It introduces a new principle to simulate the load operating conditions with moving wheeled vehicle in outdoor environment at the bench «Roller. A mathematical model of wheeled vehicle dynamics both at the bench and on the road has been developed. The mathematical simulation allows us to conduct the theoretical researches of straight-line dynamics of a single wheel on the hard non-deformable support base with different characteristics. The results of mathematical simulation proved the efficiency of the proposed approach and the created mathematical model. Further research trends based on this principle are justified.
Creating the Finite Element Models of Car Seats with Passive Head Restraints to Meet the Requirements of Passive Safety
# 04, April 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0414.0706991
D.Yu. Solopov, V.N. Zuzov
The paper presents the created finite element models of car seats with passive head restraints of three levels of complexity, conducts their analysis in terms of the simulation error assessment and meeting the UNECE Regulations No 25. It discusses the basic principles for designing the finite element models of head restraints and car seats with different complexity. These models are assessed in terms of result errors and effort to develop and find solution, using software packages (ANSYS, Femap and LS-DYNA) that implement the finite element method. Performed calculations based on the finite element method give a possibility to analyze a large data file about the process of emergency loading, which is required to estimate the safety of car seats in the case of the rear-end impact to car.
Algorithm of Dynamic Stabilization System for a Car 4x4 with a Link Rear Axle
# 04, April 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0414.0704685
M.M. Jileikin, A.O. Chulukin
Exploring the development trends of the modern automobile, you can see that manufacturers are constantly improving a control level of parameters of wheeled vehicles motion, achieving the maximum level of car stability and controllability. The slow development of similar systems in the Russian automotive industry is the cause of the lack of research in the field of power-distribution under specific driving conditions, typical for the automobile all-wheel drive vehicles. The purpose of work is a development of methods to control the curvilinear motion hire 4x4 with a link to the rear axle, providing the increase of stabilization and tracking stability of the car. The paper presents developed algorithms of torque redistribution between driving axles and wheels of a car 4x4 with the torque redistribution between the driving axles  in the range of 100:0 - 0:100 and 100:0 - 50:50 and with the torque redistribution between the wheels of the rear axle in the range of 0:100, ensuring the stabilization and tracking stability of the car. The paper offers a criterion for system operation to have dynamic stability of the wheel vehicle motion. It also presents analysis to compare the efficiency of different algorithm combinations for motion stabilization of cars with a link to rear axle.

Mathematics and Mathematical Modeling

Solution of Direct Kinematic Problem for Stewart-Gough Platform with the Use of Analytical Equation of Plane
# 04, April 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0414.0706936
A.L. Lapikov, V.N. Paschenko
The article examines existing approaches to solution of direct kinematic problem for the Stewart-Gough platform. It suggests the method to solve this problem for the one type of simplified model of Stewart-Gough platform (type 6-3), which is based on determination of analytical equation of moving platform plane. The task is formalized as a system of nonlinear algebraic equations a characteristic property of which is equations of the same structure, with the same type of nonlinearity. The solution of the direct kinematic problem (pose of the moving platform) is given as homogenous transformation matrix.
Model-Based Approach to EEG Classification
# 04, April 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0414.0705745
A.G.Trofimov, S.L. Shishkin, A.E. Ossadtchi
The paper offers a developed method of constructing a feature space for electroencephalogram classification. It is based on the localization of brain’s electrical activity sources. The simplest statistical characteristics of dipole moments for equivalent current dipoles are chosen as features for classification, and the nearest neighbour algorithm is used for classification. The research on real electroencephalograms reveals that the accuracy of the proposed method is comparable to the accuracy of the existing classical approaches in brain-computer interfaces at the same time giving a number of opportunities to further increase it and having clear neurophysiological interpretation.
On Some Anisotropy-Based Analysis Problems for Linear Discrete-Time Descriptor Systems with Nonzero-Mean Input Signals
# 04, April 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0414.0704850
O.G. Andrianova
The paper presents a novel concept of anisotropy-based analysis for linear discrete-time descriptor systems with nonzero-mean input signals. Descriptor systems are a general case of normal systems. They contain both differential (difference) equations and algebraic ones. The paper offers an algorithm for mean anisotropic computation of the Gaussian stationary random sequence with nonzero mean (on the assumption that, the signal was generated by the shaping filter in descriptor form). The equations for anisotropy norm computation (in the frequency domain) for descriptor systems are developed. Numerical examples are given.
Refinement of Some Estimates for Values of the Hypergeometric Functions
# 04, April 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0414.0704694
P.L. Ivankov
To study the arithmetic properties of values of the generalized hypergeometric functions with irrational parameters it is impossible to use directly Siegel's method known in the theory of tran-scendental numbers. The reason is a too fast growing minimal common denominator of the ex-pansion coefficients of such functions in formal power series. In some cases, however, this diffi-culty can be overcome by means of special reasoning, and a linear approximating form (or sim-ultaneous approximations) can be constructed using a Dirichlet principle. Here, some techniques related to the effective construction methods of the abovementioned approximations are applied too. In case of inhomogeneous forms, using these considerations leads to insufficiently accurate estimates. In this paper for refining such estimates we construct simultaneous approximations with the optimal choice of zero polynomial degree.

Aeronautical and Rocket Space Engineering

Process Fluids of Aero-Hydraulic Systems and Their Properties
# 04, April 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0414.0705577
I.S. Shumilov, L.V. Сhursova, L.S. Sedova
The article considers process fluids, which are presently applied to aviation hydraulic systems (AHS) in domestic and world practice. Aviation practice uses rather wide list of fluids. Based on the technical specification a designer makes the choice of specific fluid for the specific aircraft. Process fluids have to possess the specified properties presented in the article, namely: lubricating properties; stability of physical and chemical characteristics at operation and storage; low-temperature properties; acceptable congelation temperature; compatibility with materials of units and components of hydraulic systems; heat conductivity; high rigidity; minimum low coefficient of volume expansion; fire-explosion safety; low density. They should also have good dielectric properties, be good to resist to destruction of molecules, have good anticorrosion and anti-erosion properties, as well as not create conditions for emerging electro-kinetic erosion of spool-type and other precision devices, and a number of other properties.
Experimentally Investigating Efficiency of Using the Catalytic Blocks in a Small N2O Gas-Generators with Resonant Initiation System
# 04, April 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0414.0705122
K.Yu. Aref'ev, A.V. Voroneckii
In cutting-edge aerospace technology small gas-generators (SGG) are widely used for creating a high-enthalpy flow with required characteristics. One of perspective unitary fuels for SGG is nitrous oxide (N2O). However, the use of N2O requires solving the problems of initiation and intensification of its decomposition process. The article considers one of the possible solutions to fulfil these tasks by using the resonant gas-dynamic systems (GRS) to initiate a workflow with no electric power. Predesigns and results of tests showed that SGG using the nitrous oxide with GRS has rather long time to reach the nominal operation conditions and rather low extent of decomposition of N2O. The paper offers to determine experimentally the efficiency of the catalytic blocks used in SGG with GRS-based devices to initiate the workflow. It presents the following: an installation diagram, a technique to conduct experiments and their results, as well as a complex analysis of data and a comparison with calculations. The obtained data allow us to draw a conclusion that with using the catalytic blocks, there is a possibility to accelerate bootstrap operation of SGG and  increase the efficiency of decomposition of N2O.
The Application of Analytical Methods to the Study of Pareto - Optimal Control Systems
# 04, April 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0414.0704897
I.K. Romanova
Analytical approach to a problem of the multicriteria optimization, being alternative to expensive cost calculation numerical methods of sounding of space of parameters is considered. The statements allowing on characteristics of a comonotonicity and contramonotonicity are formulated and to the angular characteristic of anti-gradients to define парето - optimum decisions. The received results are applied to a problem of parametrical synthesis of double-circuit control systems by movement of missilies. The possible directions of improvement of inconsistent criteria of time of increase and reregulation are shown and limits of parametrical correction are noted

Instrument Engineering, Metrology and Information-Measuring Devices and Systems

Experimentally Studied Laser Fluorescence Method for Remote Sensing of Plant Stress Situation Induced by Improper Plants Watering
# 04, April 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0414.0707937
Yu.V. Fedotov, O.A. Bullo, M.L. Belov, V.A. Gorodnichev
The paper concerns a laser fluorescence method for vegetation monitoring. It presents the experimental study results of laser-induced fluorescence spectra of plants in stress situations caused by improper watering. It is shown that at 532 nm wavelength of fluorescence excitation a stress factor impact may cause both a magnification of fluorescent signal and a deformation of fluorescence spectrum profile.  An identifying factor to characterize deformation of laser-induced fluorescence spectrum profile can be a relationship of fluorescence intensities at two wavelengths, i.e. 685 and 740 nm. Measurement of fluorescent signal intensity and fluorescence spectrum profile can be a basis of the laser fluorescence method to detect the plant stress situations.

Radio Engineering and Communication

On a Class of Optimal Nonlinear Binary Sequences
# 04, April 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0414.0704644
S.S. Yudachev
An algorithm for generating ensembles of two classes N and Di nonlinear binary code sequences that are optimal in the sense of boundaries of packaging is presented. On the basis of this algorithm and its program realization in C#, ensembles of sequences of different lengths are obtained and their correlation properties are analyzed in detail. In the ensemble the sequences with the best properties are selected. The undoubted advantages of the N and Di sequences include the correlation properties and their substantial set of lengths. On the basis of the performed calculations the conclusions can be made about the prospect application of studied classes of sequences designed for spread spectrum systems with code division multiplexing.

Informatics, Computer Science and Management

Estimate the Pareto-Approximation Quality in the Problem of Multi-Criteria Optimization. A Review of Programme Systems.
# 04, April 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0414.0709198
V.V. Belous, S.V. Groshev, A.P. Karpenko, I. A, Shibitov
The paper makes a statement of the multi-criteria optimization problem, gives a brief review of techniques to solve it using its Pareto-approximation, and presents mainly known approximation quality indicators. Principally, the paper gives a review of known programme systems orientated to the Pareto-approximation problem solution, which implement various algorithms to estimate the quality of this approximation.
Program Complex of Pretreatment Imaging for Detection and Image Recognition
# 04, April 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0414.0707888
V.A. Bulanov, T.M. Volosatova
This article describes a workstation designed to create programs of pretreatment images for subsequent detection and recognition. It considers the methods and algorithms for solving the inverse problem of image processing, which arise, for example, with aerial drones being not equipped with a gyro stabilization system of aerial cameras. These include a problem of defocus and blurring recovery in the resulting images. A developed image processing software includes: defocusing and blurring recovery (an inverse problem solution); filtration; "joining frames" for the synthesis of the frame (merging into panorama) from the fragments. The article presents the interface of software support for most of the above algorithms and the results of studies using the numerical experiment.
Lossless Compression of Telemetry Information using Adaptive Linear Prediction
# 04, April 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0414.0707364
M.A. Elshafey, I.M. Sidyakin
The paper presents main outcome of lossless compression of telemetry information study. Proposed algorithm for lossless telemetry compression is divided in two main steps: decorrelation and entropy coding. We use Normalized Least Mean square (NLMS) adaptive filter as decorrelator and experimented with two different adaptive decorrelation strategies. A comparison of the effectiveness of these different adaptive strategies are performed based on variances and entropy of the resulting prediction errors after decorrelation. In the experiments, data from automatic control system with different parameters are examined, including temperature, pressure and positioning data. These data form a stream of telemetry information conform to IRIG-106 standard. The standard is widely used in the aerospace industry. Different frame structures of that standard (with or without sub-frames) are studied. During the experiments, several algorithms for entropy coding, including Arithmetic, Huffman and Rice codes are also studied as core algorithms at the second step of lossless compression. Comparison of algorithms’ effectiveness and recommendations for development of lossless telemetry compression systems are provided based on acquired results of experiments.
Solving a Molecular Docking Problem by the Modified PSO Method
# 04, April 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0414.0707258
A.P. Karpenko, K.O. Matveeva, V.A. Bulanov
The paper presents a canonical method of the swarm particles in two modifications to raise this method efficiency in solving multi-extreme problems of high dimension optimization. The method efficiency and its abovementioned modifications have been investigated in solving the test problems of optimization. One of the offered modifications has been used to solve the 28-dimensional molecular docking problem of proteases HIV1and darunaviry 3U7S as the molecules of receptor and a ligand, respectively.
Developing Methods and Means to Improve the Sensitivity and Stability Characteristics of Microwave Sensors.
# 04, April 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0414.0704976
S.A. Vasyukov, A.B. Krasovskii, D.G. Ostapenko, V.I. Fedin
The existing analog circuit-based microwave sensors for car alarm systems have high power consumption and high level of intrinsic noise, causing "false" alarm of response sensors; non-stable temperature characteristics that require readjusting the sensor during the transition from the summer season to the winter one; adjusting the nonlinear characteristics and uneasy adjusting with variable resistors.The paper concerns the issues of designing the two-zone digital microwave sensors. It proposes a circuitry and algorithms for digital signals processing. This allows the 6-8 times reduction of power consumption, cut of noise level in half thereby increasing the sensor sensitivity and implementing a remote setting of warning and alarm zones (16 levels of sensitivity) and an algorithm of self-adaption to the repetitive external actions. The paper proposes a method for generating the reference levels of digital comparators at each gradation of sensitivity to linearize the output characteristic of the sensor.
Stability of Nonlinear Repetitive Processes with Possible Failures
# 04, April 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0414.0704664
J.P. Emelianova
This paper considers the nonlinear discrete-time repetitive processes with possible failures. For such systems a new notion of pass profile exponential stability is defined, that generalizes a well known notion of stability along the pass, used for linear processes. Based on vector Lyapunov function approach sufficient conditions of this type of stability are obtained. This stability conditions are applied to iterative learning control design of linear systems with possible transmission failures. The effectiveness of proposed algorithm is demonstrated on simplified model of vertical channel dynamics of gantry robot.
Harmonic Linearization Method in the Identification of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems
# 04, April 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0414.0704613
Y.N. Pavlov, V.M. Nedashkovskii, E.A. Tihomirova, I.B. Shavirin
The article concerns the harmonic linearization method in the identification of nonlinear dynamical systems problem by the example of a system with dry friction. It describes an algorithm for the systems identification with a known transfer function for an experimental frequency hodograph that contains random measurement accuracy. The transfer function of the system was adopted as a model. The authors suggested finding a solution of the identification problem in the hodograph class, defined by system model. The unknown coefficients transfer function is searched, according to authors’ proposal, by the minimizing a proximity measure of the experimental system hodograph and the hodograph of system model. As a result, the solution of the identification problem was reduced to solving a system of linear equations. An illustrative numerical simulation for the second-order system has shown that the accuracy of determining the values of the transfer function coefficients is comparable with the range of measurement accuracy of experimental samples of this system hodograph.

Mechanics

Analysis of Sea Ice Cover Sensitivity in Global Climate Model
# 04, April 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0414.0708369
V.P. Parhomenko
The paper presents and discusses experimental results of joint calculations using a 3D atmospheric general circulation model, an upper layer ocean model, and a sea ice evolution model for arctic region. To analyze a sea ice cover evolution the calculations are performed. The paper gives maps of calculated sea ice cover distributions in the Arctic Region for different seasons. It analyzes the sea ice cover sensitivity to the basic parameters of models. These parameters define interaction between the atmosphere, ice, and ocean, namely sensible heat flux from sea ice and snow surface, heat flux from ocean to ice. The spatial and seasonal structure of changes has rather complex non-uniform character; there are great areas of opposite changes. It is connected with nonlinear behavior of feedback and interactions in model system including an atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean.

Education Sciences

Characteristic of Methods for Prevention and Correction of Moral of Alienation of Students
# 04, April 2014
Z.K. Malieva
Alienation of the individual from the universal spiritual and moral values of the society is one of the urgent problems in the modern world. However, despite the works available in this area, the scientific literature does not adequately address the methods for solving this problem. In this study, the author reveals the matter points of pedagogical methods and techniques to prevent and correct the moral alienation of students. The paper identifies the main rules to apply the proposed methods. It analyzes the required conditions to make an efficient use of these methods in the educational process. The results of the study extend the knowledge about the nature of the tutor’s activities aimed at solving the problem of moral alienation of the students.
Analysis of Main Factors Influencing the Emergence of Inventions and Discoveries in Science and Technology
# 04, April 2014
I.S. Potapcev, V.V. Bushueva, N.N. Bushuev
The discoveries in science and inventions in technology emerge due to three available components, which are required. They are a general level of science and technology development, social order or social conditions and a personal scientist, inventor creativity. The paper reviews their relationship and interaction in various historical epochs. It especially emphasizes on the recognition of the scientist, the inventor in the development of science and technology. Difficulties in scientific research with focus on the creative process and artistic personality are identified. There is a lack of theoretical approach when analyzing this problem. So it is argued that the empirical method to analyze the characteristics of the creative person is necessary. Based on the analysis of articles both of domestic and of foreign authors in the field concerned the paper highlights the most common, significant points, which allow us to draw conclusions regarding the creation process and creative personality. The importance of these conclusions is analyzed in terms of home and foreign pedagogical practice.The novelty of this work is the analysis of creative process and creative person based on domestic and foreign literature. The foreign and domestic pedagogical practice materials illustrate the significance and application of the results of this analysis. The differences in the educational procedures in terms of creative abilities of students are highlighted. Attention is drawn to the positive aspects, which should be used in home teaching practice when dealing with students.
Appendix

Foreign Education

IRAN: Brain Drain Blights Iran’s Economy as Investors Wait in Wings
# 04, April 2014
In his flat in central Tehran, Araz Alipour counts on one hand his college friends who have chosen to build a career in Iran. “Easily 90% of them have gone overseas,” the 29-year-old software developer said, reflecting on a middle-class flight that has seen many of the nation's best scientists and engineers leave.Photographs of new cars, homes and expanding families posted on Facebook and Instagram document some of the tens of thousands of Iranian lives transplanted each year, mainly to Europe and North America. Seyyed Hassan Hosseini, deputy chief of Iran's National Elites Foundation, said on 20 April that over the past two years at least 40% of top-performing students in science and engineering left the Persian Gulf nation.
INDIA: Why India’s Universities Can’t Keep up with the Masses
# 04, April 2014
How can the Indian government improve the quality of education at the majority of the country's universities, colleges and institutes? This is more than a question for questioning's sake: it is of vital importance in a country of 1.27 billion people, half of them under the age of 25.According to recent reports, the employability rates of Indian graduates are estimated at between 34% and 53%. Going by such figures, it seems indisputable that India's colleges and universities are not getting their teaching right.
UK: New Universities to be Built in County Towns and Coastal Resorts
# 04, April 2014
David Willetts, the Universities Minister, unveils plans to create new university campuses in areas identified as higher education "cold spots" such as Shrewsbury.  The Coalition has signalled the biggest growth in universities for more than 20 years with plans to create dozens of new campuses in higher education “cold spots”. David Willetts, the Universities Minister, told officials to investigate the possibility of establishing universities in cathedral cities, county towns and coastal communities that currently lack provision. He named Shrewsbury, Yeovil, Hereford and parts of East Anglia as areas that could have higher education sites for the first time. The move is designed to increase the number of school leavers taking degree-level qualifications combined with a drive to provide a boost to local economies. Mr Willetts has written to the Higher Education Funding Council for England asking them to identify “where there is evidence of ‘cold spots’” and provide advice about how university provision could be established.
SINGAPORE: Universities Need to Offer Ideas With "Impact"
# 04, April 2014
Universities should aim to become powerhouses for positive transformation and idea generation, said Senior Minister of State for Law and Education Indranee Rajah last week. She has thrown down the gauntlet to universities in Singapore to come up with global ideas that have great impact, so that the republic need not always look to other countries.Noting that universities were "preoccupied" with equipping graduates with the skills they need for jobs they want, she said her wish was for Singapore's universities to become "powerhouses for positive transformational change and idea generation".

History of Progress

Vladimir Zworykin Kozmich (125th Anniversary of His Birth)
# 04, April 2014
V.P. Samokhin, B.M. Kindyakov
A brief review of main works and achievements of Vladimir K. Zworykin is presented, who came from a merchant family in Murom Russia and prominent American inventor of television broadcasting, the author of 120 patents. Provides information about parents Zworykin, interesting facts of his life and work, includ-ing details of student life, military service during World War I, emigration to the U.S., working in corpora-tions and RCA CRT implementation and Ikonoscope, the most important components of television systems. Zworykin described contacts with David Sarnow and American inventors, his work on the orders of the U.S. Army during World War II, advances to create an electronic microscope, color television, details of visits Zvorykin USSR, his meetings with Soviet specialists, as well as work on medical electronics in recent years of life and awards.
 
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