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scientific edition of Bauman MSTUSCIENCE & EDUCATIONBauman Moscow State Technical University. El № FS 77  48211. ISSN 19940408
# 07, July 2013
Machine Building and Engineering Science
Microarc oxidizing methods for surfaces of details made of titanium alloys
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0583316 Use of titanium alloys in marine environment imposes high requirements on the material quality of contacting parts. Microarc oxidation (MAO) is a widely used technique for forming a stable oxide layer with antiscoring protection. Electrochemical techniques may be difficult to implement for treatment of large size structures, since they require large capacity electrolytic baths as well as high power current sources. Untraditional technical approaches are sought for forming a localized oxide layer on large size structures. This paper describes microarc oxidation techniques and equipment which simplify the oxidation bench design, reduce its overall dimensions and electrolyte consumption, as well as electric energy consumption, providing quality anode coating on large nomenclature of titanium alloy parts. The specified problem is tackled due to use of devices that provide local oxidation and are moved along the whole surface of a detail or just along necessary areas. This fact leads to a significant reduction in required power of current sources because MAO occurs in a small area. It also simplifies the cooling process.
Calculated parameters of a draw band twisted joint
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0582853 In this article for the first time the authors consider a method of determination of basic parameters of electricalinstallation binding by wire wrapping which ensures higher reliability and durability compared with soldered joints. The method is based on a use of physical processes occurring during this kind of installation. The results of the analysis allowed to determine the basic parameter – that is the radius of the wrapping roller’s working end. Experimental data on the value of the deformation degree of a real wrapping wire were used to estimate the study result. The obtained results can be used to calculate a wrapping tool.
Comparison of static characteristics of electrohydraulic amplifiers with proportional and servo control
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0579738 The authors consider results of experimental studies of static characteristics of amplifiers with proportional and servo valve control. A comparison of characteristics that were recorded in a specially created complex allows to evaluate the accuracy of an amplifier with a proportional valve control and determine the impact of hydrodynamic forces applied to the spool on these characteristics. Experimental results prove flow characteristics and dependence of hydrodynamic forces on displacement of the spool; these results were obtained with the use of a computer model of a hydraulic amplifier. It was shown that if the spool has profiled surface, static characteristics of amplifiers with a proportional and servo valve control become approximately the same due to the balance of hydrodynamic forces. Thus, the authors established a possibility of application of simpler amplifiers with less power consumption and with a proportional valve control instead of a servo one. This statement is important for designing hydraulic drives.
Materials for an abrasive tool. Review
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0577449 This author analyzes recent significant changes in the normativetechnical documents in reference to grinding materials, determination of their properties, quality control and designation.The article also presents information on new classification of grain composition, bonding materials, hardness and structure of abrasive tools. Application domains were specified for different grades and parameters of grinding materials, along with their correspondence to foreign analogues. Particular attention was paid to superhard abrasive materials based on diamond and cubic boron nitride (CBN), identifiers of their parameters as well as rational application domains in manufacturing engineering. The author also considers flexible abrasive tools. There are examples of designation of materials for abrasive tools and their individual parameters.
Simulation of forming process of discreteslot structure in case of birotatory edge cutting machining
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0576656 Creation of birotatory machines of multiblade processing and development of methods for their exploitation is an actual scientifictechnical task closely connected with the problem of creation of hightechnology and highperformance equipment. Development and efficient exploitation of a birotatory complex for processing details with a discreteslot surface structure which implement its technological capabilities require knowledge of the regularities of formation of details. In this case it is necessary to solve a number of problems associated with the modeling and analysis of the formation process of this kind of structure, which haven’t been solved yet. The aim of this research is an identification and functional interrelation analysis of geometrical parameters of a curvilinear slot with geometric and kinematic parameters of a birotatory cutmap. Functional relations for determination of geometrical parameters of the obtained discreteslot structure were developed. Vector formalization of configuration of a technological gearing scheme was introduced basing on the concept of cycloidal forming. The generalize vector model of cycloidal forming which is universal for external, internal and encircle technological gearing schemes of the couple (detailtool), for milling, tangential turning, climb cutting and counter cutting, was developed. A solution method for the model of a cycloidal slot forming based on the transcendence formula reduction to algebraic form, which allows one to calculate a slot length to a precision of 0.03 in defined technological gearing scheme and kinematic processing parameters, was also developed; in the tasks of a parametric synthesis it allows one to determine parameters of a cutmap in order to obtain the required slot length.
Constructional Material Processing in Machine Building
Pipe couplings for shaft connection
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0577791 Elastic pipe couplings are used in low power drives because their application is limited due to loss of section stability under loading of comparatively low rotational moment. This results in significant performance degradation of properties of such couplings. In order to improve section stability and, therefore, to increase the transfer moment, it was proposed to fill the pipe’s internal space (between shafts to be connected) with narrow metallic rings which were mounted with some tension. Changing the number and height of rings could lead to changes of the coupling properties. A coupling with an elastic metallic assembly mounted in the pipe’s hole was developed for operation under high dynamic loads. A patent for invention of the Russian Federation was received for this coupling.
Cutting with outrunning plastic deformation in technologies of utilization of metal chips
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0567548 The author considers different possibilities of increasing efficiency of processing of metal chips during utilization by means of crushing them with the use of machinetools while processing work pieces. It was shown that application cutting with outrunning plastic deformation (OPD) during the processing provides both reliable crushing of flow chips and high technological and technicalandeconomic parameters of the processing. Cutting with OPD and crushing of metal chips allows to eliminate one of the most timeconsuming operations of utilization – that is granulating with the use of special equipment before briquetting and remelting. Experimental data on durability of toothed elements of crusher rolls that are used for crushing metal chips during the processing with OPD are presented. Recommendations are given on selection of a material for toothed elements and of their geometry, depending on properties of the material to be processed. It was established that application of elements made of hard alloy of VK6, VK6OM allowed them to work without regrinding for more than 20 hours.
Power Machine Building, Metallurgical Machine Building and Chemical Engineering
Selection of optimum parameters for the hydraulic drive of a fan of a vehicle’s engine cooling system
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0590873 The authors consider a problem of choosing optimal parameters for a hydraulic drive with a discrete control output link by the example of a hydraulic fan of a heavyduty vehicle’s engine cooling system. The objective function was selected in accordance with the efficiency criterion of the hydrostatic power drive. Limits of variable parameters’ values were set to reflect the work of the hydraulic drive in the specified system. Results of the application of genetic and modified genetic algorithms for determining parameters of the hydraulic drive were described in this article. The obtained results were compared with the results based on the LPτ search of hydraulic parameters, optimal by two criteria. Academic novelty of this article consists in consideration of different approaches to the problem of interactive design of technical systems with discrete controls which is composed of commercially available standard hydraulic units.
Transportation, Mining and Construction Machine Building
Improvement of recuperation for a hybrid vehicle
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0588384 In this article the authors analyze various energy recovery systems of hybrid vehicles. Conclusions on inadequacy of existing technical solutions were drawn. The article also describes principles of selecting an energy recovery device that meets the performance level requirements of a hybrid vehicle. The authors describe the construction of an experimental vehicle with a hybrid powertrain. They also developed an algorithm of the operation of a vehicle with a hybrid powertrain during its movement in the urban cycle, which takes power balance in the drive into account. Results of the experimental research of a vehicle confirmed existence of limitations associated with a mounted energy storage device and electrical components. In addition, requirements for an "ideal" battery were specified.
Problem of creating finiteelement models of car seats with active head restraints to meet the requirements of passive safety
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0578993 In this work rational finite element models of head restraints of car seats were developed. Assessment of those models regarding errors of simulation and correspondence to the requirements of UNECE Regulations № 25 was carried out. Those models were also evaluated regarding errors of results; labor cost of development and solving with the use of software packages which implement the FEM (ANSYS, Femap and LSDYNA) was also carried. Calculations based on the finite element method provide a possibility to obtain the whole information on the process of emergency loading required for estimating safety of car seats in case of rearend collisions.
Development of a continuous control law for a semiactive suspension system with a fuzzy configuration of parameters
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0567714 Creation of means of effective protection from external dynamic effects has always been one of the most important problems of modern equipment. The aim of this work is to increase smooth running of multiwheeled vehicles using an adaptive control of elasticdamping elements of the suspension system. On the basis of application of methods of fuzzy logic, adaptive laws of a continuous suspension control system of multiwheeled vehicles, namely the “inertial damper” adaptive law and the adaptive law of the counteraction of a linearangular fluctuations, were developed. Methods of simulation modeling were used to determine that efficiency (reduction of the variance of the vertical accelerations at the driver's place compared to the unmanageable adaptive suspension) of the “inertial damper” law is 7...20%; one of the laws of counteraction of linearangular fluctuations  0...13%.
Mathematics and Mathematical Modeling
Localization of invariant compact sets of twodimensional continuous dynamical systems
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0583104 УДК: 517.925.5 One method of the qualitative analysis of a dynamical system is to estimate the position of its compact invariant sets closely associated with bounded trajectories of the system. As a solution to such a problem, one can use a localizing set, i.e. a set in the phase space containing all invariant compact sets of the system. In this article two continuous twodimensional dynamical systems describing behavior of some biological systems are explored. For each of these systems a family of localizing sets is constructed, and then the intersection of the family is calculated. For the first system the solution was obtained analytically and for the second one the numerical procedure of constructing localizing sets was proposed. The investigation results are shown in figures.
Algorithm for calculating Mestimates of autoregressive field's parameters
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0571094 УДК: 519.234.3 A process of a twodimensional autoregression of order (1, 1) is considered in this article. Distribution of the innovation field of the autoregressive model is assumed to be unknown. An algorithm for calculating Mestimates of coefficients of the autoregressive field was constructed. The convergence of this algorithm was proved. The algorithm is an iterative version of the weighted least squares method. The weights are recalculated at each step. Each iteration represents the process of solving the system of linear equations. In contrast to the method of Newton (method of tangents) the algorithm converges from any point of the initial approximation.
Aeronautical and Rocket Space Engineering
Optimization of dynamic characteristics of a ground catapult for minimizing the guide’s length
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0602237 A problem of obtaining the best dynamic performance of a ground launching device (GLD) for starting unmanned aircraft vehicles (UAVs) was formulated in this paper. A wellknown catapult construction, allowing to smooth the regressive law of traction, and thereby reduce the boost phase of UAVs, was considered. The author proposed an improved version of GLD; this version is based on the wellknown principle of action which is implemented in a flexible transmission. A complex conjugate thermalgasdynamical and mechanical model of GLD was developed. With regard to the proposed scheme of the catapult an optimization problem was formulated and optimal characteristics of the cable angles, which allow one to approximate the constant law of overload to high precision, were determined. A number of numerical experiments which helped to obtain the best configuration were carried out on the basis of the model of GLD. The author analyzed physical parameter fields in the cylinder of an expansion engine and their effect on characteristics of the stratum. Dynamic characteristics of the proposed type of GLD were also presented in this paper.
Monitoring condition of agricultural fields based on prediction of NDVI with the use of multispectral and hyperspectral data from space imagery
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0577991 Problems of condition monitoring of agricultural fields based on prediction of NDVI dynamics considering climate and atmospheric influence were studied. Different algorithms for preparing initial data were proposed. The research was conducted for the regions of Russia which are notable for different relief, climate and environment. Initial data for simulation were formed by combining the information from the multispectral and hyperspectral space imagery. The conducted mathematical simulation showed a principal opportunity to use Earth observing systems for appropriate shorttime predicting of vegetation processes.
Instrument Engineering, Metrology and InformationMeasuring Devices and Systems
Study of diamondlike coatings by IRspectral ellipsometry and Raman spectroscopy
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0597996 The authors conducted a study based on the use of such methods as IRspectral ellipsometry and Raman spectroscopy of protective diamondlike coatings (DLC) which are applied on amideimide resin samples. Within the framework of this investigation the ratio of sp2/sp3 bonds, optical constants, resistivity and thickness of protective diamondlike coatings were determined. The obtained data may appear useful when developing operating practices of coating DLC, as well as determining the relationship between physical and chemical characteristics of coatings (chemical composition, thickness, etc.) and their functional properties (barrier properties against negative space factors).
Radio Engineering and Communication
Measuring phase difference of quasiharmonic signals in real time
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0588392 The authors propose a digital method of measuring the phase shift of quasiharmonic signals with the same instantaneous frequency on a limited sample. A realtime algorithm was created on the basis of the specified method; the proposed algorithm was tested in numerical simulations and experiments at the developed hardwaresoftware package. The measurement error of the phase difference of harmonic signals in the experiments did not exceed 10^{6} rad while the measurement error of signals with amplitude modulation of 20% was less than 5 ∙ 10^{5} rad. The method could be used to solve problems of radio interferometry, acoustics, etc., where the unknown value us expressed in terms of the phase difference of quasiharmonic signals.
Informatics, Computer Science and Management
Parallel algorithm for solving systems of linear algebraic equations with a multidiagonal coefficient matrix
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0590785 This article describes a parallel algorithm for solving systems of linear algebraic equations with a multidiagonal (band) coefficient matrix. A scheme of the algorithm for multiprocessor sharedmemory computing systems is also presented in the article. Data structures for a compact storage of sparse band matrices were implemented. Theoretical and experimental investigations of efficiency of the algorithm were conducted using various problems. Dependences of the program’s speedup on various parameters of the problem and the number of processors were given in this work. The conclusion presents pros and cons of the algorithm.
Measuring the density of conduction current without distorting the field being investigated
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0578057 Problems of development and design of sensors of the electric field or the density of conduction current in conducting media, without distorting the field being investigated, are considered in this article. Construction of a sensor which doesn’t distort the picture of the field when one brings it into a specified volume of a conductive area was considered on condition that the field is homogeneous. This condition is met when the sensor’s geometrical dimensions are much smaller than the scale of its heterogeneity. Original designs of real electric field sensors with electrolytic water channels which do not distort the field being investigated and allow one to measure both one component of the tension and three components, were considered. Recommendations on selecting geometrical dimensions of water channels were given. Analytical dependences for determining metrological characteristics of such sensors were also obtained.
Affine system transformations to the canonical form using change of the independent variable
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0566578 УДК: 517.938 Change of the independent variable (timescaling) gives an additional degree of freedom for equivalence conversions of dynamical systems. Affine system transformation to the canonical form is a standard technique in the design of nonlinear control systems. In this paper transformations of a stationary affine system to the canonical form, using timescaling, were investigated. Integratable and nonintegratable changes of the independent variable were considered. It was shown, that the affine system can't be transformed to the canonical form using integratable timescaling. Conditions of the possibility of transformation to the regular canonical form using nonintegratable time scaling were obtained for singleinput affine systems of the third order.
Mechanics
Comparative analysis of estimations of heat conduction of a composite with ball inclusions
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0569319 УДК: 541.124 The authors consider different mathematical models of thermal interaction of ball inclusions and the matrix of a composite, used for estimating the effective heat conduction coefficient of this kind of composite. Application of a dual formulation of the variation problem of stationary thermal conductivity in a nonhomogeneous solid body allowed to get doublesided estimations of possible values of the coefficient. It was determined that transition from ball inclusions to cubic ones influenced slightly the effective heat conduction coefficient of a composite. The authors derived an evaluation formula that allowed to obtain a reliable estimation of this coefficient within the whole range of possible variations of the volume concentration of inclusions. Due to the electrothermal analogy it was possible to apply the obtained results in order to estimate characteristics of electrical conductivity and of dielectric capacitance of composites modified with ball inclusions (considering nanostructured elements).
Optics
Developing new criteria of efficiency for road LED luminaires
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0579034 This article is important because of both wide assortment of road LED luminaires on the Russian market and a large set of their technical parameters and characteristics. New criteria of energy efficiency for road LED luminaires were elaborated and scientifically corroborated. These criteria of energy efficiency of LED luminaires allow one to prevent a wrong choice of a luminaire and to identify the most suitable model. Appropriateness of criteria introduction was confirmed by the example of choosing the most energyefficient LED luminaires for the selected scheme of road illumination. The introduced criteria allow experts in road and street illumination to choose the most suitable luminaire from all available ones on the LED luminaire market in order to replace the incandescent luminaires for the purpose of energysaving.
Power Engineering
Estimating the influence of current limiting coil’s properties on transient recovery voltages at contacts of a hightension switch in case of fault currents’ cutoff
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0593546 One way to reduce fault currents in a highvoltage power network is application of current limiting coils. However, mounting of current limiting coils influences transient processes in case of short circuits. Rates of transient recovery voltage development at the contacts of a switch in case of commutation in circuits with current limiting coils exceed permissible values. In order to break a circuit successfully, it is required that the rate of recovery voltage in a switch circuit should not exceed the limiting normalized values permissible for the specified switch type. This paper considers the influence of current limiting coils’ properties, such as inductivity and natural resonance frequency, on transient recovery voltages.
Metallurgical Engineering
Thermodynamic analysis of covering blades of gasturbine engineы made of heatproof nickel alloys with protection diffusion coatings with tantalum undercoat
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0583284 This work presents results of thermodynamic studies and searching for a rational chemical activation dopant for deposition of tantalum from the gaseous phase onto surfaces of parts of gasturbine engines made of heatproof nickel alloys in order to increase the diffusion stability of heatproof aluminide coatings. Calculations showed a possibility of using nickel dichloride for tantalum and tantalumchromium coating of nickel alloys. During this investigation several restrictions on the number of additional alloying elements in the saturating mixture were discovered. An effective amount of chromium for the combined process of tantalumchromium coating was also determined.
Behaviourial Sciences
Psychological and acmeological indicators of professional elitism in the sphere of technique and technology
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0589218 In this article, for the first time the author describes psychological and acmeological indicators of professional elitism in the sphere of technique and technology. Basing on the system analysis of the phenomenon of professional elitism, which included a theoreticalmethodological analysis, empirical studies on the basis of structural and functional and competencebased approach, the author identified three integrated indicators reflecting the main essence of this phenomenon, such as: creativity, leadership and innovation. The emphasized psychological indicators of professional elitism permeate all major components of the psychological structure of activity and personality of an elite specialist and reflect basic requirements to an elite specialist as a subject of activity and professional communication. Creativity, leadership and innovation define meaningful characteristics of a systemic phenomenon of professional elitism on sociological, sociopsychological and psychological levels of representation; they reflect quality standards and expectations of the society in relation to extraclass professionals, social and group features of the professional community and personal activity characteristics of elite specialists in the sphere of technique and technology.
7748211/541868 Acmeology as a research, educational and applied branch of the humanities
# 07, July 2013 Data on the state and development of acmeology, which is a new scientific and educational branch of the humanities, are presented in this article. This sphere of science is not wellknown in Russia and almost unknown abroad. The main aim of this article is to demonstrate a comprehensive and indepth penetration of acmeology into scientific and practical knowledge. Scientific and social value of acmeology is conditioned by the novelty and originality of its object field. Development prospects of acmeology are associated with its openness to outer needs and with the development of the innovative methodology. Special educational programs for teaching acmeology were developed; they provide training of psychologists in acmeology. Acmeology is also focused on usage of psychological and acmeological data for professionalism upgrading and for activation of personal growth.
Software
Development of a program complex for solving inverse problems of chemical kinetics and its implementation in a virtual test bed
# 07, July 2013 DOI: 10.7463/0713.0601521 In this paper the authors formulated an inverse problem of chemical kinetics and analyzed existing software systems allowing one to determine kinetic parameters. A database of kinetic studies was designed, developed and implemented; a methodology of a parallel computing process was also formulated in this work. A software complex that allows one to simulate chemical processes in distributed virtual test beds was developed and integrated into the DiVTB system. This work is supported by RFBR (grant № 120731029, № 120700324) and the Federal Target Program "Scientific and scientificpedagogical personnel of innovative Russia " for 2009 – 2013 (Government Contract N 14.B37.21.2088).



